The export of dual-use goods to countries outside the European Union is controlled by strict rules, such as the requirement of a licence. This is described in the EU dual-use Regulation (EC) no. 428/2009.
Dual-use goods can pose a threat to public health, animal health or the environment. For reasons of international security, there are strict rules governing the export and transit of dual-use goods. These rules are based on the EU dual-use Regulation (EC) no. 428/2009. The export of dual-use goods to countries outside the European Union requires a licence. A licence can be applied for from the Central Licensing Office (CDIU) which forms part of the Dutch Tax and Customs Service. The CDIU and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs assess licence applications for dual-use goods to check that there are sufficient guarantees for civilian use of the goods for export. They check the combination of goods, the end-user and any brokers, and the end-use specified in the application.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has issued a ‘User Guide on Strategic Goods and Services’ which describes the laws and regulations that apply to export control. This user guide includes an overview of dual-use microorganisms and toxins. The guide also describes how to apply for an export licence from the CDIU.